Standardized evaluation of algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of dementia based on structural MRI: The CADDementia challenge

E. Bron, M. Smits, W. van der Flier, H. Vrenken, F. Barkhof, P. Scheltens, J. Papma, R. Steketee, C. M\'{e}ndez Orellana, R. Meijboom, M. Pinto, J. Meireles, C. Garrett, A. Bastos-Leite, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Olaf Ronneberger, N. Amoroso, R. Bellotti, D. C\'{a}rdenas-Pe\~{n}a, A. \'{A}lvarez-Meza, C. Dolph, K. Iftekharuddin, S. Eskildsen, P. Coup\'{e}, V. Fonov, K. Franke, C. Gaser, C. Ledig, R. Guerrero, T. Tong, K. Gray, E. Moradi, J. Tohka, A. Routier, S. Durrleman, A. Sarica, G. Di Fatta, F. Sensi, A. A
NeuroImage, 111: 562–-579, May 2015

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Abstract: Algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of dementia based on structural MRI have demonstrated high performance in the literature, but are difficult to compare as different data sets and methodology were used for evaluation. In addition, it is unclear how the algorithms would perform on previously unseen data, and thus, how they would perform in clinical practice when there is no real opportunity to adapt the algorithm to the data at hand. To address these comparability, generalizability and clinical applicability issues, we organized a grand challenge that aimed to objectively compare algorithms based on a clinically representative multi-center data set. Using clinical practice as the starting point, the goal was to reproduce the clinical diagnosis. Therefore, we evaluated algorithms for multi-class classification of three diagnostic groups: patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The diagnosis based on clinical criteria was used as reference standard, as it was the best available reference despite its known limitations. For evaluation, a previously unseen test set was used consisting of 354 T1-weighted MRI scans with the diagnoses blinded. Fifteen research teams participated with a total of 29 algorithms. The algorithms were trained on a small training set (n = 30) and optionally on data from other sources (e.g., the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle flagship study of aging). The best performing algorithm yielded an accuracy of 63.0% and an area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) of 78.8%. In general, the best performances were achieved using feature extraction based on voxel-based morphometry or a combination of features that included volume, cortical thickness, shape and intensity. The challenge is open for new submissions via the web-based framework: http://caddementia.grand-challenge.org .

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  author       = "E. E. Bron and M. Smits and W. M. van der Flier and H. Vrenken and F. Barkhof and P. Scheltens and J. M. Papma and R. M.E. Steketee and C. M\'{e}ndez Orellana and R. Meijboom and M. Pinto and J. R. Meireles and C. Garrett and A. J. Bastos-Leite and A. Abdulkadir and O. Ronneberger and N. Amoroso and R. Bellotti and D. C\'{a}rdenas-Pe\~{n}a and A. M. \'{A}lvarez-Meza and C. V. Dolph and K. M. Iftekharuddin and S. F. Eskildsen and P. Coup\'{e} and V. S. Fonov and K. Franke and C. Gaser and C. Ledig and R. Guerrero and T. Tong and K. R. Gray and E. Moradi and J. Tohka and A. Routier and S. Durrleman and A. Sarica and G. Di Fatta and F. Sensi and A",
  title        = "Standardized evaluation of algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of dementia based on structural MRI: The CADDementia challenge",
  journal      = "NeuroImage",
  volume       = "111",
  pages        = "562–-579",
  month        = "May",
  year         = "2015",
  url          = "http://lmb.informatik.uni-freiburg.de//Publications/2015/AR15"

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